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Cardiovascular diseases, or CVDs, are the leading cause of death globally. Every year around 17.9 million people die because of it, which can be seen increasing yearly. CVDs a group of disorders that affects the heart and the blood vessels. It includes coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and other heart-related conditions.
Death from CVD is mainly due to heart attack and stroke. Four out of five people suffering from heart disease die from a heart attack or stroke. And a third of these deaths are premature in people under 70.
Thus, it is important to detect cardiovascular disease at early as possible to take steps to manage your condition. Keep reading to know more about Cardiovascular diseases, their causes, risk factors, symptoms and ways to manage them.
Cardiovascular diseases(CVDs) are related to the heart or blood vessels. When blood flow gets affected by a blood clot(Thrombosis) or the build-up of fatty deposits inside an artery, it causes hardening and narrowing of arteries, causing risk to the body's organs like the heart, brain and other organs. Due to insufficient blood flow to the heart and brain, the risk of heart attack and strokes gets higher. These are the life-threatening episodes that appear due to cardiovascular diseases.
Some groups of heart disorders and blood vessels fall under CVDs. They include:
It is a disease in which the blood supply to the heart muscles gets blocked. Over time, when the walls of arteries become furred up with fatty deposits, the blood vessels fail to properly supply blood to the heart's muscles.
Read heart related article - Altherosclerosis
A disease is a group of conditions that affects the blood flow and the blood vessels in the brain. Due to narrowing(stenosis), blood clots (thrombosis), blockage in the artery(Embolism) or rupture of blood vessels(Hemorrhage), the flow of blood may get affected.
It is a disease that affects the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to the legs. It affects the legs or lower extremities by narrowing or blocking the vessels supplying these parts.
It is a disease that causes damage to the heart muscle and valves due to rheumatic fever. It is a systemic immune problem caused by this fever due to a beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection.
Rheumatic disease is one of the critical forms of acquired heart disease in children and adults globally.
It is a congenital disability that affects the normal way the heart works. The condition appears due to malformations of the heart structure from birth.
A disease includes blood clots in the veins of the legs, which may move to the heart and lungs. The condition, like Deep vein thrombosis, is usually in the lower extremities. And, Pulmonary embolism appears when a part of the Deep vein thrombosis(DVT) clot breaks off and moves to the lungs. It can be life-threatening.
Some Behavioural factors may also contribute to heart diseases in people. It includes unhealthy diet, lack of physical activities, tobacco use and excessive use of alcohol. These behavioural risk factors can put negatively impact an individual's health. Symptoms such as raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, increased blood lipids, and overweight and obesity can be seen under these factors.
Some other risk factors for Cardiovascular disease are
In primary care facilities, these intermediate risk factors can be measured. It may help indicate the risk of heart attack, heart failure, stroke and other complications associated with CVDs.
Making behavioural changes such as
Making these changes may help you reduce the risk of Cardiovascular disease(CVD).
Also, there are other underlying determinants of Cardiovascular diseases. The major forces that may drive a person under such unhealthy circumstances are social, economic and cultural changes. It includes globalization, urbanization and population ageing factors. Some other determinants that CVDs include are stress, poverty and hereditary factors.
Thus, Health policies that create conducive environments for health choices are essential. Making them affordable and motivating people to adopt healthy behaviours may help. In addition, Medical treatment, like medications for conditions like hypertension, diabetes and high blood lipids, is a vital step to reduce the risk of CVDs. Also, it will help to prevent heart attacks, strokes like life-threatening conditions among people.
Usually, no symptoms of an underlying disease are associated with blood vessels. Episodes of a heart attack or a stroke can be the first sign of an underlying cardiovascular disease. Some common symptoms of a heart attack are-
Also, a person may experience symptoms such as.
Breathing difficulties or shortness of breath
Women are more likely to experience these symptoms as compared to men.
The most common symptoms that a person may experience during a stroke are-
Weakness or numbness of the face, arm, or legs is often seen on one side of the body.
If a person suspects, these symptoms should seek immediate medical care. It is important to encounter a cardiovascular disease as soon as possible. Discuss a doctor so that the management with counselling and medications for the CVDs can begin.
A person suffering from a Cardiovascular disease(CVD) should have access to appropriate technology and medication. Making essential behavioural changes and preventing risk factors may help reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Primary healthcare with medications may help slow the progression of these health problems. Some basic medications available for the treatment and management of Cardiovascular disease(CVD) are-
A person should immediately manage conditions like a heart attack or stroke. Sometimes, a doctor may suggest you surgical operation to treat CVDs. These surgical methods of treatment are known as-
Some medical devices are also used to treat some Cardiovascular diseases. Such devices include prosthetic valves, pacemakers, and patches that help to close the hole in the heart.
Lifestyle changes are also considered to help prevent the risk of Cardiovascular diseases that includes-
In conclusion, it is important to understand the causes, risk factors and symptoms associated with cardiovascular diseases and take necessary steps to reduce your risk. This includes lifestyle changes such as eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, reducing stress levels and limiting alcohol consumption. Additionally, medications are also available that can help manage CVDs. It is essential for everyone to monitor their health closely so that if any problem arises they can get timely medical attention. Taking preventive measures now may help you lead a healthier life in future.