How does hypertension affect the human body?

How does hypertension affect the human body?
Published : Feb 20, 2024
Last Updated : Feb 20, 2024

Hypertension is often known as high blood pressure. It is a disease that damages the human body quietly without the signs of symptoms. In some instances, high blood pressure leads to strokes and heart attacks. It affects various body parts, which you can know on this page. Read this article to learn more about how hypertension affects one's body.

What is high blood pressure?

Hypertension is the blood pressure that is higher than normal blood pressure. The blood pressure number changes throughout, depending on the activities. Consistent high pressure can cause damage to cardiovascular health. As a result, monitor BP regularly to avoid worsening of your health.

Effects of hypertension on the body

It affects the entire body. Here is a detailed explanation of how it affects the human body.


The first effect hypertension prevails is on arteries. Blood vessels carrying blood to the heart are strong and flexible. In the case of hypertension, all these functions change. The smooth inner lining no longer stays the same after high blood pressure.

Hence, more blood pressure starts damaging the arteries' inner walls. When you consume food, the fats enter the bloodstream, which are collected in arteries, resulting in less elastic arteries.

As a result, it limits the blood flow. Also, the high force of blood through damaged arteries causes them to bulge, known as an aneurysm. Aneurysms are mainly caused by a more significant artery known as the aorta.


Next, it affects heart health. The primary function of the heart is to pump blood throughout the body. Hypertension puts strains on the heart and weakens the heart muscles. As a result, it works less effectively than before.

Also, the heart must work more to push blood through clogged arteries. The overtime working of the heart makes it more significant, and the heart walls lose strength. Hence, it causes heart attacks.

Other than this, it can also cause heart health problems like arrhythmia, an irregular heartbeat, and angina, a chest pain.


Hypertension also affects the kidney health. It has been observed that 1 in 5 who suffer from high blood pressure suffers from kidney disease. The kidney carries oxygen and nutrients to the body and removes waste from the body.

High blood pressure clogs the blood vessels, which leads to kidney health problems. Also, this makes kidneys less effective for filtering waste. High blood pressure deteriorates the kidney condition with time. As a result, it leads to kidney failure.


High blood pressure is the leading cause of brain strokes. The blood flow in the brain gets affected by the leaked or clogged artery caused by plaque. Hence, only some of the parts of the brain get enough blood.

This leads to specific problems, including vision change. If the blood can be restored within time, you can prevent yourself from permanent brain damage. The low blood flow in the brain cells can lead to vascular dementia. Vascular dementia prevents you from thinking.


Tiny blood vessels are responsible for transporting blood to the eyes. Hypertension squeezes the blood flow in the eyes. Hence, this causes damage to blood vessels. Also, fluid gets stored under the eyes' retina, causing focus loss. This hypertension can cause vision distortion, leading to loss of vision.


The most commonly affected part of the human body is hypertension. High blood pressure decreases the blood flow quantity in the reproductive organs. This leads to erectile dysfunction, where men are unable to achieve erections. Also, it reduces the sex drive in women.


Calcium is an essential nutrient needed in the body. When you are suffering from hypertension, it makes you excrete more amount of calcium through urine. As a result, the calcium levels decrease in the bones, leading to osteoporosis. This is a problem caused due to weak bones.

Legs and hips

High blood pressure blocks the arteries. The clogged arteries cause pain in the legs and hips, especially in the lower part of the body. Also, it leads to problems while walking or stair climbing because the leg muscles become sore.

Tips for managing blood pressure

So, as it can affect several body parts, it is essential to manage it. Here are the things you must follow.

  • Follow a healthy diet with limited fats and oils.
  • Intake of as low a quantity of sugar as possible.
  • Avoid smoking and consuming alcohol regularly.
  • Manage stress by performing several exercises, including meditations.
  • Take blood pressure medicines as said by your doctor without missing any dose.
  • Involve your body in physical workouts for at least 30 minutes to 1 hour daily.

The above tips might help you manage your blood pressure. It is essential to monitor your blood pressure levels regularly.

Final words

So, blood pressure is a health problem. But if it increases in high number, it can affect your entire body. Also, it can worsen your overall health. So, keep monitoring your BP levels to avoid getting affected by it.